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Welcome to RULES and TOOLS

PAVO offers a variety of valuable tools, information, and links to enhance training for officials.  Some of the topics below explain required steps that must be completed one time to move to a certain certification, or annually as season preparation.  Other tools noted below are optional and help officials develop the skills and knowledge that lead to a successful officiating career.


RefSchool is an optional program that increases officiating knowledge. RefSchool is purchased on an annual subscription basis and costs $10 for PAVO members ($15 for non-members). A current subscription (June 1 through May 31) allows you 24/7 access.  A subscription allows you to select short quizzes on specific rules or complete practice exams with immediate feedback.  The question bank includes current and previous-year NCAA/PAVO exam questions..

iREF (PAVO Member Benefit)

The iREF program is a multi-level, comprehensive learning management system for referees.  There are four levels of iREF modules—100 through 400. The iREF mission is to standardize the fundamental training that was previously only offered by various PAVO Affiliated Boards, USAV Regions, and NFHS state associations. While all current members of PAVO have unrestricted, 24/7 access to all iREF content, specific completion criteria remain tied to PAVO referee certifications; for example, entry-level referees must take the 100-level modules to achieve PAVO Apprentice referee certification. But the benefits of iREF go beyond certifications criteria.

Current Rule Changes

NCAA Women’s Volleyball Rules are modified every two years in even-numbered years.  In odd-numbered years, points of emphasis and technique changes still occur.  Annually, those rule changes are summarized into a quick-reference web page and PDF document.

Rule Comparisons

PAVO develops two rule comparison documents annually, in collaboration with USA Volleyball and NFHS.  One compares NCAA, USAV, and NFHS rules, and the other is a detailed comparison of NCAA and USAV rules and techniques.  These documents are one of the most effective tools available for multi-level officials.

Challenge Review System (CRS)

The advent of video review of some officials’ decisions—called the Challenge Review System—has created the need for a variety of documents that are helpful to officials involved in a CRS match.  Those documents and forms are available for download, and new techniques are described in detail.

Exam Information

PAVO develops a series of annual exams for referees, line judges, and scorers.  The referee exams are produced in coordination with the NCAA.  Taking these examinations is required for renewal/maintenance for all PAVO certification levels.  Two levels of referee exams are created each year; Form C is targeted at entry-level referees, and Form A/B is intended for more experienced referees.  Form A/B can only be taken online and is accessible from the NCAA Volleyball Central Hub.

NCAA Central Hub (PAVO Member Benefit)

PAVO members pay the NCAA registration fee when they pay their PAVO dues, providing access to the NCAA Central Hub.  The Central Hub is maintained by the NCAA Secretary-Rules Editor (SRE) and National Coordinator and is the only source for the NCAA/PAVO Form A/B Exams, NCAA rules interpretations, National Coordinator Messages, Line Judge Corner, and other current season information.  Anyone who officiates volleyball matches using NCAA rules needs access to these important tools.

Rules Interpretations (PAVO Member Benefit)

The NCAA Secretary-Rules Editor (SRE) and National Coordinator create Rules Interpretation (RI) newsletters on an as-needed basis during the women’s collegiate season. Typically, 2-4 RI newsletters are created each year, and often include timely information on rules implementation and officials’ techniques. These interpretations are based on recent issues and questions that have come to the SRE and National Coordinator and provide up-to-the minute information.

Scorer Tools

PAVO recognizes that scorers are critical members of the officiating crew.  Scoresheets, libero tracking sheets, and educational tools are all provided by PAVO to provide scorers with current tools and information.  Included is a PowerPoint presentation on the fundamentals of scoring procedures and an addendum for special procedures associated with CRS matches.

Direct questions to Lynette Muller, Executive Administrator, PAVO Central Office at or 316-788-4035.

Direct technical questions to