Annually, PAVO works in close coordination with the NCAA and USA Volleyball to develop a series of theoretical (written) exams for PAVO member-referees. All PAVO referees are required to take a theoretical exam yearly to obtain or maintain PAVO certification. The referee's certification level determines which exam is taken and the minimum required score.
The exams developed include:
Form A - written for the more experienced referee and tests both knowledge and application of the rules. Local, State, and National certified referees are required to take the Form A exam. Form A must be taken online.
Form B - some certification levels and local boards require a particular exam score on EITHER Form A or Form B. If Form A is taken and the required score is not attained, Form B is used to re-test the referee. Specifically, National referees who do not score the required 90% on Form A must take Form B. Form B must be taken online.
Form C - intended for entry-level referees, this exam can be used as a part of the certification process for new referees and/or recertification of Apprentice referees. Form C may be taken online, or a paper copy is available from your Affiliated Board Chair.
PAVO members who have paid current year dues access the Form A or B exam via the NCAA Central Hub. Once the online Form A or B exam is completed and the answers are submitted, the test-taker receives immediate feedback on their score and the particular question(s) missed. Results and corrections can then be submitted to the appropriate Affiliated Board Chair and results can be forwarded to any number of selected assignors, conferences, etc. via the online exam site. The online exam will be available on the NCAA Central Hub website until October 15 each year; however, the NCAA has established a September 1 (11:59 pm Central Time) exam deadline for all referees who wish to be considered for post-season assignment (all NCAA Divisions). To be included in the post-season selection pool, a score of at least 90% on Form A or Form B must be attained. Also, by September 1 (11:59 pm Central Time), all PAVO National referees must complete the Form A (or B) exam, attain a score of at least 90%, and submit the results to the PAVO NRT Director as one of their annual maintenance requirements. For PAVO non-National referees, the exam deadline is October 15 (11:59 pm Central Time.)
Specific requirements for each PAVO certification level are:
- Apprentice referees - Apprentice referees may take the Form C exam, and required results are established by each PAVO Affiliated Board. Each board chair is provided a master copy of the Form C exam, which can then be used for training and testing. Form C is also available online in each member’s MY REF KIT tab after logging into the PAVO website. Each Apprentice referee may use the rulebook or other resources to correct the exam to 100%, noting the rule references on the answer sheet.
- Local and State referees - Referees seeking or currently holding a Local or State certification must take the Form A exam each year. The referee must correct any missed answers and may use the rulebook or other resources to obtain the correct answers. The appropriate rule reference(s) is noted. It is recommended that each referee or candidate take the exam closed-book, then have a member of the Affiliated Board’s exam committee correct the exam and discuss the questions that were missed with the referee or candidate. The rule book may then be used to correct the exam to 100%.
- National referees & National referee candidates - National referees and those striving to become a National referee in the upcoming season must take the Form A exam online each year, closed-book (use of the rulebook, PAVO Women’s Volleyball Officiating Manual, or other materials is not permitted) and within a 90-minute time frame. A score of 90% must be attained to be eligible for a National Rating Team (NRT) site (if a candidate), or to maintain the National certification (if currently a National referee). If a score of 90% is not attained on Form A, the referee is allowed to review and discuss the questions that were missed, and then must take the Form B exam, closed-book. The PAVO NRT Director must receive examination results annually by September 1 (11:59 Central Time) for all National referees. If, after taking both Form A and Form B, a current National referee does not attain a score of 90%, the referee is ineligible to receive renewal points for that season. Failure to meet this requirement twice during the same certification term will result in the referee losing the National certification. National referees must also complete the current-year online line judge exam (see below) by September 1 as a maintenance requirement.
LINE JUDGE EXAMS
PAVO develops an annual written exam for line judges as part of the certification materials. The line judge exam is included with the current-year Line Judge Training Manual. To obtain a basic line judge certification, this exam is taken at the clinic and reviewed and corrected as part of the training process.
National line judges must take the online line judge exam annually by September 1 (11:59 Central Time) as a maintenance requirement. The exam can be accessed on the PAVO website, after login, from the member’s MY REF KIT tab.
PAVO develops an annual written exam for scorers as part of the certification materials. The scorer exam is included with the current-year Scorer Training Manual. To obtain a scorer certification, this exam is taken at the clinic and reviewed and corrected as part of the training process.